This study is one of a series of three case studies conducted in Madagascar, Comoros and Rwanda into the right to education of children with disabilities.
The Malagasy Constitution stipulates that every child has the right to free primary education, and this is reflected in the government commitment to achieve the international Education for All (EFA) targets. While Madagascar made significant progress towards achieving EFA over the past decade, the country has been significantly impacted since 2009 by a period of political unrest which resulted in falling financial support from donors. If the situation has now normalised, about 90% of the population lives nowadays on less than USD 2 a day, and the financial cost of schooling to be borne by households hence represents one of the main barriers to enrolment in school. The net enrolment rate at primary level decreased from 96.8% in 2005 to 69.4% in 2012, with an estimated 1.5 million children of primary school age currently out of school.
Within the education system, pre-primary education is a newly emerging subsector, with just 3.6 per cent of the cohort aged children enrolled in 2010/2011. Primary education is mostly provided by the public sector, where schools work under difficult circumstances with a severe lack of resources and the majority of teachers are untrained and appointed by the community. There are high repetition and drop-out rates, and many over-age children in classes, especially in rural areas. Enrolment in lower secondary school is less than a quarter of that in the primary sector.
Education for children with disabilities has historically been provided through specialist centres organised by the churches, and this continues to be the case, particularly for children with sensory impairments. There is one government school providing for children with intellectual impairments, many of whom also have physical disabilities and an increasing number of private providers offering placements for children with intellectual impairments. With the adoption of the 2009 Decree on inclusive education guaranteeing the right for all children with disabilities to be enrolled in ordinary schools, there have been a variety of both government and NGO initiatives piloting inclusive education programmes and integrated classes over the past few years, but these have suffered from the curtailment of donor funds during the crisis.
This study is one of a series of three case studies conducted in Madagascar, Comoros and Rwanda into the right to education of children with disabilities.Download now
We were delighted to host the UK’s Special Envoy on Gender and Equality, Alicia Herbert OBE, as part of her visit to Rwanda to attend the Rwandan government-led Women Deliver summit. On the second day of her visit, Ms Herbert visited our Building Learning Foundations (BLF) Programme to observe a girls' club activity at GS Mburabuturo, a government school located in Kigali.
Following Covid-19-related school closures across Rwanda, our Building Learning Foundations team commissioned an inequity impact assessment of the country’s primary-age school population to investigate how children from different backgrounds and contexts have fared during the period of closures, and to inform plans for school reopening.
Globally, there are 70.8 million forcibly displaced persons. Among these are 25.9 million refugees, over half of whom are children. Effective teacher management is key to ensuring inclusive, equitable, quality education for these young people, and teachers constitute the most important factor affecting student learning. In crisis and displacement situations, the role of teachers is particularly significant: they are sometimes the only resource available to students. This report investigates teacher management in refugee contexts in Ethiopia, and is the first in a series of country reports. It contributes to a burgeoning body of evidence about teachers in refugee contexts and aims to provide policy guidance to support ministries of education.